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MockSec Interview, Question 1 – Analysis and Errata

Link to Question 1

There are a number of different salient details here that need some consideration. First of all, there’s the data assets involved. From the problem description, we have some that are explicit in the question (name, medical info, emergency contact info, etc.), but there’s also clearly some other data involved that the devs assumed, but didn’t mention. There’s no mention made here, for instance, of a user authentication system. Presumably there’s some kind of way for users to authenticate themselves to the app. Related to this is the interesting question of user authorization. What access should users have to their own data? Do we, for instance, really need users to be able to read the home address or medical information they’ve previously entered into the app? Or is there a way to mask that data in order avoid disclosure in case the phone is compromised. A good candidate will be able to reason about various tradeoffs here, from both a security and product perspective.

More senior candidates should be able to talk about how to deal with the fact that you have data from people who aren’t the customer (emergency contact details). Are there any additional controls that should be put in place due to the fact that the people represented in the contact details never consented to having their data stored by our system? More senior candidates should also be able to talk about the possible regulatory risk. This needn’t be in depth legal analysis, but they should be aware of what broad regulations will apply to the application in their country. (E.g. would a US company building this app be bound by HIPAA due to the presence of health information?)

In addition to user authentication, there’s also service authentication questions. How will the application authenticate the services it’s communicating with to ensure it doesn’t send sensitive customer information to the wrong endpoints. TLS is one possible solution to this. Good candidates will be able to talk in detail about the TLS configuration would look like. More advanced candidates would also be able to talk in depth about related controls like cert pinning, including the tradeoffs that cert pinning requires for operations and updates. These can get especially tricky in mobile applications. What do you do about the (non-zero) number of users who will install the app, but never update it? Does your proposed authentication system work both for the information reporting (client-initiated) and the emergency push notifications? And does that change depending on the architecture of how the push notifications are triggered?

The interviewee should also be able to take in varying levels of depth about the cryptographic requirements for the data. For Junior applicants, a strong understanding of the cryptographic primitives might be enough, but more senior candidates should be able to talk in detail about what cryptographic controls to use (including identifying appropriate algorithms) and to help design a workable key management system for the application.

Candidates should be able to talk in depth about a data sanitation and validation strategy, as well as well talk about what vulnerabilities might arise from a failure to implement it properly.

Candidates should be able to identify reasonable, actionable risks to the system, including both confidentiality risks to the data, but also be able to reason about data integrity and how it might impact customers. They should also be able to identify negative use cases for application logic and design sensible tests for them. (E.g. what happens if I can insert arbitrary users into the service with spoofed GPS codes using an emulator? What threat scenarios does this bring up in case of an emergency?)

Once we’ve identified several of the risks inherent in the system and the controls required, a candidate should be able to talk about testing methodology. Depending on the role, this might involve walking through a pen test plan, or it might just involve identifying some test cases for the dev team to include in their own QA.

More senior candidates will also have to consider a lot of areas that the devs apparently haven’t, such as Disaster Recovery or Security Operations. In other words: what happens if the natural disaster also wipes out the data center hosting the servers that do the push notifications? How do you deal with disasters that also take down power or knock out the mobile data infrastructure? What do you do when a customer who hasn’t paid their service bill is in a natural disaster where your application might help? What requirements will you have for the team for when their service is breached? What level of access will you recommend the devs to grant themselves? What insider threats do you need to be worried about and what controls can be put in place to mitigate them?

One advantage to the interviewer is that this question, though compact, covers a lot of different areas. This allows the interviewer to dig into areas that are particular to the role being considered. For a Senior Application Security candidate, I’d probably focus a lot on analyzing or improving the design of the application to remove classes of risk, and then drilling in depth into some of the more tricky threats and controls. For a Junior pen test person, I’d probably focus on identifying a bunch of concrete threat scenarios and negative use cases and then ask them to detail how they would test those if they had to pen test the system. This flexibility is why I personally prefer these kinds of described systems problems. They’re easy to generate (especially once you’ve practiced a few of them) and can be easily tweaked, refined, or refocused to the role and level under consideration.

MockSec Interview, Question 1

Skill(s): Threat modeling
Level: Entry-level to Senior Engineer

A dev team wants to develop an emergency response app. They want users to enter their personal details, including name, home address, and emergency contact details, as well as medical information (blood type, allergies, existing medical conditions, etc.) into a smart phone app. They plan to combine this data with GPS information from the user’s phone and store it in via a service layer into a centralized database. That way, when a natural disaster occurs, first responders can know who was in the effected area, as well as access up-to-date health information about them, in case they need medical attention.

The information will also be persisted locally on the device and, if the user is detected to have been in an area effective by a natural disaster, the back-end service will send a push notification so that the user’s personal information will be displayed on the lock screen. This is so that anyone who finds the phone can help that person appropriately.

They expect the app to be free, but service-enabled features to cost a modest monthly fee. User’s provide their credit card details via the app when they sign up, but the payment functionality is handled by a third party.

There is no web interface of any kind.

The devs have come to you to help them develop their threat model. What are some threats that the system (as described) needs to account for? What controls would you tell the developers to put in place to help mitigate those threats?


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Analysis and Errata

Postmodern Philosophy of Art 10 Minutes

Does this look dangerous to you?

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Under Saudi Arabia’s strict interpretation of Sharia, women are barred from obtaining driving licences and those who flout the ban are jailed. All female citizens are subject to a crushing guardianship system that obliges them to seek permission from male relatives to do everything from opening a bank account to travelling.

Source.

Dave Grohl, Taylor Swift, Pot, and Paul McCartney’s Left-Handed Guitars

(All followed Dave playing a pretty good acoustic version of “Best of You”.)

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“Change is the master key. A man can wear out a particular part of his mind by continually using it and tiring it, just in the same way as he can wear out the elcbows of his coat…[O]ne cannot mend the frayed elbows of a coat by rubbing the sleeves or shoulders; but the tired parts of the mind can be rested and strengthened not merely by rest, but by using other parts…

To be really happy and really safe, one ought to have at least two or three hobbies, and they must all be real.” – Winston Churchill, “Hobbies”, Pall Mall, 1925

“…in fact, you should probably also take that one.”

Here’s to rough starts and recoveries.

“I like the way you move me”

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Magic Blue Smoke

House Rules:

1.) Carry out your own dead.
2.) No opium smoking in the elevators.
3.) In Competitions, during gunfire or while bombs are falling, players may take cover without penalty for ceasing play.
4.) A player whose stroke is affected by the simultaneous explosion of a bomb may play another ball from the same place.
4a.) Penalty one stroke.
5.) Pilsner should be in Roman type, and begin with a capital.
6.) Keep Calm and Kill It with Fire.
7.) Spammers will be fed to the Crabipede.